Analog Circuits and Systems: Electronic devices: small-signal equivalent circuits of diodes, and its characteristics, MOSFETs and BJTs. Diode circuits: clamping and clipping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of FET and BJT amplifiers. Amplifiers: multi-stage and single stage, differential and operational amplifiers, power and feedback, Amplifier. Frequency response of amplifiers. Op-amp circuits: current-to-voltage converters, voltage-to-current converters, active filters, wave-shaping circuits, sinusoidal oscillators, effect of practical parameters. Electronic measurements: current, voltage, impedance, phase, time, frequency measurements and oscilloscope.
Digital Circuits and Systems: Minimization of Boolean functions and Boolean algebra. Logic gates, CMOS and TTL IC families. Combinatorial circuits: code converters, arithmetic circuits, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: flip-flops and latches, shift-registers and counters. Sample-and-hold circuits, DACs, ADCs, Microcontrollers and Microprocessors: Simple number systems, 8051 and 8085 architecture, I/O memory, interfacing, parallel and Serial communication.
Signals and Systems: Impulse response, Linear time invariant systems, transfer function, frequency response of 1st - and 2nd order systems and convolution of system. Random noise and signals: probability, probability density function, random variables, autocorrelation and power spectral density then Sampling theorem, Discrete-time systems: frequency and impulse response, FIR and IIR filters.
Communications: Amplitude Modulation, Angle modulation and demodulation, frequency division multiplexing and time division multiplexing. Pulse code modulation (PSK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), and Pulse Shift Keying (PSK) for Digital Modulation. Bandwidth Calculation and SNR calculations. Channel capacity and Information theory.